Espresso means express, as you might guess.
Espresso is black coffee which is stronger than most coffees brewed by other methods because while making an espresso, a small amount of boiling water is forced over grounded coffee beans and the outcome is a thick coffee concoction.
Milk or cream is never poured into espresso (except when making other drinks, which are no longer called “espresso”), although espresso can be sweetened with sugar if desired.
Note that contrary to cappuccino, here the higher the temperature the better the taste.
A café latte, or “latte” for short, is an espresso based drink with steamed milk and micro-foam added to the coffee. This coffee is much sweeter compared to an espresso due to the steamed milk.
Latte is a creamier version of coffee.
One shot of espresso is mixed with 6 to 8 ounces of steamed milk, and some then topped with foam, usually served in a tall glass as opposed to a cup in cafés.
A cappuccino is similar to a latte. Cappuccino is named for its similarity in color to the robes of Capuchin monks.
However the key difference between a latte and cappuccino is that a cappuccino has more foam and chocolate placed on top of the drink.
People like to add a little modification to their cappuccino by adding chocolate powder, cinnamon powder or substituting cream for milk.
A mocha is a mix between a cappuccino and a hot chocolate.
It is made by putting mixing chocolate powder with an espresso shot and then adding steamed milk and micro-foam into the beverage.
The espresso, milk ratio of a mocha is exactly like latte over which dark chocolate is added.
A macchiato is similar to an espresso but with a dollop of steamed milk and foam to mellow the harsh taste of an espresso.
It is hot water with an espresso shot extracted on top of the hot water.
It is made two-thirds of hot water with one shot of espresso over the hot water.